The functional budget is one that relates to any of the functions of an organization. The number of functional budgets depends upon the size and nature of business. The following are the commonly used:
A budget manual is a document that sets outstanding instructions governing the responsibilities of persons and the procedures, forms and records relating to the preparation and use of budgets and it is a booklet containing standing instructions regarding the procedures to be followed and the time schedules to be observed.
Revision Variance is the amount by which a budget is revised but which is not incorporated in the standard cost rate as a matter of policy. The standard costs may be affected by wage rate changes after wage accords, fiscal policy etc. The standard costs are not disturbed to account for these uncontrollable factors and to avoid the amount of labor and cost involved in revision, the basic standard costs are allowed to stand. It is essential to isolate the variance arising out of non-revision in order to analyze the other variances correctly.
To line up the various functions of the Budget Committee, to bring them together and to co-ordinate their efforts in the matter of preparation of target figures, there should be a person usually designated as the Budget Controller, who can provide ready data relating to all the functions. He is more or less the secretary to the budget committee. The Budget Controller does not control; he is a staff man; he advises but does not issue instructions.