The double-entry system of bookkeeping refers to a system of accounting under which both of the aspects (i.e. debit and credit) of every transaction are recorded in the accounts involved. For each transaction, this means that a bookkeeping entry will have to be made to show an increase or decrease of the other item
The basic assumptions of accounting are like foundation pillars on which the structure of accounting is based.
The following are four basic assumptions of accounting
Business entity: According to this assumption, a business is treated as a separate entity and distinct from its owners. Its books of account should record only those transactions which belong only to the firm and should not include personal transactions and activities of the owner. The personal resources of the proprietor(s) affect the accounting records of business only when there is an introduction of new capital into the business or drawings are taken out of it by them.
Net profit is a good indicator of the efficiency of a firm. The net profit ratio or net profit margin ratio is determined by relating net income after taxes to net sales. Net profit here is the balance of profit and loss account which is arrived at after considering all non-operating incomes such as interest on investments, dividends received, etc. And non-operating expenses like loss on the sale of investments, provisions for contingent liabilities, etc.
i) The issued share capital of Mbeya Trust, a publicly listed company on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange, on 31st March 2013 was TZS 10 million. Its shares are denominated at TZS 25 each. Mbeya Trust’s earnings attributable to its ordinary shareholders for the year ended 31st March 2013 were also TZS10 million, given an earnings per share of TZS 25.