Double-entry system – meaning

Double-entry system - meaning

The double-entry system of bookkeeping refers to a system of accounting under which both of the aspects (i.e. debit and credit) of every transaction are recorded in the accounts involved. For each transaction, this means that a bookkeeping entry will have to be made to show an increase or decrease of the other item read more

4 basic assumptions of accounting.

four basic assumption of accounting

The basic assumptions of accounting are like foundation pillars on which the structure of accounting is based.

The following are four basic assumptions of accounting

Business entity: According to this assumption, a business is treated as a separate entity and distinct from its owners. Its books of account should record only those transactions which belong only to the firm and should not include personal transactions and activities of the owner. The personal resources of the proprietor(s) affect the accounting records of business only when there is an introduction of new capital into the business or drawings are taken out of it by them. read more

Net Profit Ratio – meaning and formula.

Net Profit Ratio - meaning and formula.

Net profit is a good indicator of the efficiency of a firm. The net profit ratio or net profit margin ratio is determined by relating net income after taxes to net sales. Net profit here is the balance of profit and loss account which is arrived at after considering all non-operating incomes such as interest on investments, dividends received, etc. And non-operating expenses like loss on the sale of investments, provisions for contingent liabilities, etc. read more